Criminal law and criminal justice is becoming increasingly globalised. The era in which individual jurisdictions developed their own codes, statutes and systems of justice with little regard to other systems and countries is long over. In its place there is a growing desire to develop common approaches to common problems and to learn from the diversity of current practice in different countries. That development, however, requires a thorough, systematic, multi-jurisdictional comparative analysis, of a kind that has not been provided by recent and existing comparative projects which are still relatively infrequent, and typically focus on a specific topic or issue. The aim of such a systematic analysis would be to see whether it is possible to articulate a common grammar or set of foundational concepts that could ground productive trans-jurisdictional discussion and progress. Initiated by Prof.Dr. Dr. h.c. Kai Ambos, Göttingen, this project will explore that possibility. The project participants come from Germanic and Anglo-American jurisdictions, and have been carefully selected to reflect a diversity of backgrounds with either a more theoretical/normative or a more empirical focus. All are distinguished international scholars.